Pediatric Review: International Journal of Pediatric Research <p><em><strong>ISSN: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2349-3267 (Online)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2349-5499 (Print)</a></strong></em></p> Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society en-US Pediatric Review: International Journal of Pediatric Research 2349-5499 Modality of Respiratory Support in Preterm Neonates with Respiratory Distress and its Outcome: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh <p><strong>Background: </strong>Preterm neonates are at increased risk of developing respiratory distress after birth. In order to reduce preterm death and their morbidity, identification of etiology and optimum management of respiratory distress is crucial.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine causes of respiratory distress, pattern of respiratory modality used and its outcome among admitted preterm newborns.</p> <p><strong>Patients and methods: </strong>This study included 142 preterm neonates admitted with respiratory distress and required respiratory support in the NICU of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, during the period from January 2020 to December 2021. Causes of respiratory distress and pattern of respiratory support was observed. Morbidities and in-hospital mortality were compared between invasive and non-invasive support group in the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean gestational age among the studied neonates was 32.39 ± 2.46 weeks. Male was predominant (54.2%) and mean birth weight was 1631.44 ± 578.57 g. About 62% belonged to the gestational age within 28 - &lt;34 weeks category. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was the most common cause which was 50.0% following TTN 24.6%, congenital pneumonia 19.0% and PNA 6.3%. Sepsis, septic shock, DIC, NEC and in-hospital mortality, nasal trauma, ROP and IVH occurred significantly higher in the mechanical ventilator support group in comparison to the NIV support group and the <em>p</em>-value were &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study Respiratory distress syndrome is the commonest cause of respiratory distress. Invasive ventilation was associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates when compared with those required non-invasive ventilation.</p> Abdul Mannan Shimul Mandal Mohammad Rasel Baisakhi Biswas Maria Mahabub Copyright (c) 2023 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2023-05-12 2023-05-12 10 2 25 31 AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF CYANOSIS <p>t<br>Methaemoglobinemia is an uncommon haemoglobinopathy but potentially fatal if unrecognized or <br>untreated at the earliest. It can either be congenital or acquired. Acquired can be after using topical <br>anaesthetics such as nitrates, benzocaine, and lidocaine. The present study reports a rare case of <br>benzocaine induce Methaemoglobinemia. A 20 days old male baby presented to the emergency room <br>with complaints of seizure like activity in the past hour, bluish discoloration of skin since past 1 day and <br>loose watery stools since 3 days. Baby was irritable, crying with central cyanosis, had 2 episodes of <br>seizures upon arrival. He was tachypnoeic with saturations were 85% on room air along with <br>tachycardia. Perianal rash with excoriation of overlying skin was present. Rest of the examination was <br>unremarkable. He was managed with supplemental oxygen, IV antiepileptic and supportive treatment. <br>His septic screen was normal; Chest x-ray was unremarkable, 2D Echo showed a structurally normal <br>heart with normal biventricular function. His percutaneous oxygen saturation remained 85-88% despite <br>administration of 100% oxygen. His arterial blood sample had a dark chocolate color appearance, with <br>normal PaO2 levels on blood gases. His methaemoglobin levels were 21.7%. After, two doses of <br>methylene blue (1 mg/kg/dose) were administered, his cyanosis abated and oxygenation improved. <br>Repeat methaemoglobin levels were 1.3%. A relook into the history revealed use of Mucopaine gel for <br>perianal rash which contains Benzocaine confirming it as Benzocaine induced Methaemoglobinemia.</p> BALAJI SUSARLA SUMAN KUMAR CHINTALAPALLY RAVALI GUNDAPUNENI SRAVYA PODISHETTI Copyright (c) 2023 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society 2023-04-27 2023-04-27 10 2 22 24